Crowdsourcing Open innovation Consumer acceptance Co-design of innovation Consumer-involvement methods Consumer-led NPD
The paper systematically analyses the concept of consumers’ role and the level of consumer integration and interaction in recent food innovation processes. In 2016, a three-step literature search was performed. A key finding is that most implemented consumer-involvement approaches and methods fall under von Hippel’s manufacturer-active paradigm rather than the customer-active paradigm (CAP). However, there are practical reasons for the low diffusion of CAP.